eBook free PDF download on Power Plant Technology by M.M. EI-Wakil. Book download link provided by Engineering Study Material (ESM). BOOK TITLE: Power Plant Technology. BOOK AUTHOR: M.M El-Wakil. PUBLISHER: McGraw Hill Book Company. BOOK CONTENTS: Chapter. I have posted many post related to mechanical engineering best books free pdf gonddetheppolad.ga this post I have share some best Power plant.
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Power Plant Technology by El-Wakil - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online for free. power plant. Power Technologies Energy Data Book .. Combined-Heat-and-Power Plant Net Summer Capability Regional .. The PTEDB may be downloaded as a single PDF file, individual chapters, or table PDF. referred more than five books among them minimum one is from aboard author. P.K. Nag, Power Plant Engineering, Tata McGraw – Hill Publishing Company.
Notify me of new posts by email. Salient Features: Includes introductory material that is necessary for the understanding and analysis of most powerplant systems.
Focused on the treatment and synthesis of electric-generating Powerplant Technology and engineering, with a balance between analytical and technological aspects of powerplant design, systems, and effects. Table of Contents: Related Posts Fundamentals of Machining Processes: Conventional and Nonconventional Process.
J Davies. Basics and Applied Thermodynamics by P. K Nag. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. A fossil fuel steam generator includes an economizer , a steam drum , and the furnace with its steam generating tubes and superheater coils.
Necessary safety valves are located at suitable points to relieve excessive boiler pressure. The air and flue gas path equipment include: forced draft FD fan , air preheater AP , boiler furnace, induced draft ID fan, fly ash collectors electrostatic precipitator or baghouse , and the flue-gas stack.
The total feed water consists of recirculated condensate water and purified makeup water. Because the metallic materials it contacts are subject to corrosion at high temperatures and pressures, the makeup water is highly purified before use.
A system of water softeners and ion exchange demineralizers produces water so pure that it coincidentally becomes an electrical insulator , with conductivity in the range of 0. The feed water cycle begins with condensate water being pumped out of the condenser after traveling through the steam turbines.
Diagram of boiler feed water deaerator with vertical, domed aeration section and horizontal water storage section. The water is pressurized in two stages, and flows through a series of six or seven intermediate feed water heaters, heated up at each point with steam extracted from an appropriate duct on the turbines and gaining temperature at each stage.
Typically, in the middle of this series of feedwater heaters, and before the second stage of pressurization, the condensate plus the makeup water flows through a deaerator   that removes dissolved air from the water, further purifying and reducing its corrosiveness. The water may be dosed following this point with hydrazine , a chemical that removes the remaining oxygen in the water to below 5 parts per billion ppb.
Its walls are made of a web of high pressure steel tubes about 2. The thermal radiation of the fireball heats the water that circulates through the boiler tubes near the boiler perimeter. The water circulation rate in the boiler is three to four times the throughput.
As the water in the boiler circulates it absorbs heat and changes into steam. It is separated from the water inside a drum at the top of the furnace.
The saturated steam is introduced into superheat pendant tubes that hang in the hottest part of the combustion gases as they exit the furnace. Plants designed for lignite brown coal are increasingly used in locations as varied as Germany , Victoria , Australia, and North Dakota.
Power Plant Technology by El-Wakil
Lignite is a much younger form of coal than black coal. It has a lower energy density than black coal and requires a much larger furnace for equivalent heat output. The firing systems also differ from black coal and typically draw hot gas from the furnace-exit level and mix it with the incoming coal in fan-type mills that inject the pulverized coal and hot gas mixture into the boiler.
Plants that use gas turbines to heat the water for conversion into steam use boilers known as heat recovery steam generators HRSG. The exhaust heat from the gas turbines is used to make superheated steam that is then used in a conventional water-steam generation cycle, as described in the gas turbine combined-cycle plants section.
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Boiler furnace and steam drum[ edit ] The water enters the boiler through a section in the convection pass called the economizer. From the economizer it passes to the steam drum and from there it goes through downcomers to inlet headers at the bottom of the water walls.
From these headers the water rises through the water walls of the furnace where some of it is turned into steam and the mixture of water and steam then re-enters the steam drum.
In the steam drum, the water is returned to the downcomers and the steam is passed through a series of steam separators and dryers that remove water droplets from the steam. The dry steam then flows into the superheater coils. The boiler furnace auxiliary equipment includes coal feed nozzles and igniter guns, soot blowers , water lancing, and observation ports in the furnace walls for observation of the furnace interior.
Furnace explosions due to any accumulation of combustible gases after a trip-out are avoided by flushing out such gases from the combustion zone before igniting the coal.
The steam drum as well as the superheater coils and headers have air vents and drains needed for initial start up.
Superheater[ edit ] Fossil fuel power stations often have a superheater section in the steam generating furnace. Here the steam picks up more energy from hot flue gases outside the tubing, and its temperature is now superheated above the saturation temperature.
The superheated steam is then piped through the main steam lines to the valves before the high-pressure turbine. Nuclear-powered steam plants do not have such sections but produce steam at essentially saturated conditions. Experimental nuclear plants were equipped with fossil-fired superheaters in an attempt to improve overall plant operating cost. If the condenser can be made cooler, the pressure of the exhaust steam is reduced and efficiency of the cycle increases.
Diagram of a typical water-cooled surface condenser. Such condensers use steam ejectors or rotary motor -driven exhausts for continuous removal of air and gases from the steam side to maintain vacuum. For best efficiency, the temperature in the condenser must be kept as low as practical in order to achieve the lowest possible pressure in the condensing steam.
Thus leaks of non-condensible air into the closed loop must be prevented. The large decrease in volume that occurs when water vapor condenses to liquid creates the low vacuum that helps pull steam through and increase the efficiency of the turbines.
The limiting factor is the temperature of the cooling water and that, in turn, is limited by the prevailing average climatic conditions at the power station's location it may be possible to lower the temperature beyond the turbine limits during winter, causing excessive condensation in the turbine. Plants operating in hot climates may have to reduce output if their source of condenser cooling water becomes warmer; unfortunately this usually coincides with periods of high electrical demand for air conditioning.
The condenser generally uses either circulating cooling water from a cooling tower to reject waste heat to the atmosphere, or once-through cooling OTC water from a river, lake or ocean.
In the United States, about two-thirds of power plants use OTC systems, which often have significant adverse environmental impacts. The impacts include thermal pollution and killing large numbers of fish and other aquatic species at cooling water intakes. The circulation flow rate of the cooling water in a MW unit is about Nevertheless, they may become internally fouled during operation by bacteria or algae in the cooling water or by mineral scaling, all of which inhibit heat transfer and reduce thermodynamic efficiency.
Many plants include an automatic cleaning system that circulates sponge rubber balls through the tubes to scrub them clean without the need to take the system off-line. If the water returns to a local water body rather than a circulating cooling tower , it is often tempered with cool 'raw' water to prevent thermal shock when discharged into that body of water.
Another form of condensing system is the air-cooled condenser. The process is similar to that of a radiator and fan. Exhaust heat from the low-pressure section of a steam turbine runs through the condensing tubes, the tubes are usually finned and ambient air is pushed through the fins with the help of a large fan.
The steam condenses to water to be reused in the water-steam cycle. Air-cooled condensers typically operate at a higher temperature than water-cooled versions. While saving water, the efficiency of the cycle is reduced resulting in more carbon dioxide per megawatt-hour of electricity. Reheater[ edit ] Power station furnaces may have a reheater section containing tubes heated by hot flue gases outside the tubes. Exhaust steam from the high-pressure turbine is passed through these heated tubes to collect more energy before driving the intermediate and then low-pressure turbines.
Air path[ edit ] External fans are provided to give sufficient air for combustion. The Primary air fan takes air from the atmosphere and, first warms the air in the air preheater for better economy.
Primary air then passes through the coal pulverizers, and carries the coal dust to the burners for injection into the furnace. The Secondary air fan takes air from the atmosphere and, first warms the air in the air preheater for better economy. The induced draft fan assists the FD fan by drawing out combustible gases from the furnace, maintaining a slightly negative pressure in the furnace to avoid leakage of combustion products from the boiler casing.
Steam turbine generator[ edit ] Main article: Turbo generator Rotor of a modern steam turbine, used in a power station The turbine generator consists of a series of steam turbines interconnected to each other and a generator on a common shaft.
There is usually a high-pressure turbine at one end, followed by an intermediate-pressure turbine, and finally one, two, or three low-pressure turbines, and the generator. As steam moves through the system and loses pressure and thermal energy, it expands in volume, requiring increasing diameter and longer blades at each succeeding stage to extract the remaining energy. It is so heavy that it must be kept turning slowly even when shut down at 3 rpm so that the shaft will not bow even slightly and become unbalanced.
This is so important that it is one of only six functions of blackout emergency power batteries on site. The other five being emergency lighting , communication , station alarms, generator hydrogen seal system, and turbogenerator lube oil. The hot reheat steam is conducted to the intermediate pressure turbine, where it falls in both temperature and pressure and exits directly to the long-bladed low-pressure turbines and finally exits to the condenser.
There is generally no permanent magnet , thus preventing black starts.
The rotor spins in a sealed chamber cooled with hydrogen gas, selected because it has the highest known heat transfer coefficient of any gas and for its low viscosity , which reduces windage losses.
This system requires special handling during startup, with air in the chamber first displaced by carbon dioxide before filling with hydrogen.
This ensures that a highly explosive hydrogen— oxygen environment is not created. The desired frequency affects the design of large turbines, since they are highly optimized for one particular speed. The electricity flows to a distribution yard where transformers increase the voltage for transmission to its destination.
The steam turbine-driven generators have auxiliary systems enabling them to work satisfactorily and safely. The steam turbine generator, being rotating equipment, generally has a heavy, large-diameter shaft.
The shaft therefore requires not only supports but also has to be kept in position while running. To minimize the frictional resistance to the rotation, the shaft has a number of bearings.
The bearing shells, in which the shaft rotates, are lined with a low-friction material like Babbitt metal. Oil lubrication is provided to further reduce the friction between shaft and bearing surface and to limit the heat generated. Stack gas path and cleanup[ edit ] See also: Flue-gas emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and Flue-gas desulfurization As the combustion flue gas exits the boiler it is routed through a rotating flat basket of metal mesh which picks up heat and returns it to incoming fresh air as the basket rotates.
Power Plant Technology by M.M. EI-Wakil
This is called the air preheater. The gas exiting the boiler is laden with fly ash , which are tiny spherical ash particles. The flue gas contains nitrogen along with combustion products carbon dioxide , sulfur dioxide , and nitrogen oxides. The fly ash is removed by fabric bag filters in baghouses or electrostatic precipitators.
Once removed, the fly ash byproduct can sometimes be used in the manufacturing of concrete.Power System Security. The circulation flow rate of the cooling water in a MW unit is about Next article Next Post. Focused on the treatment and synthesis of electric-generating Powerplant Technology and engineering, with a balance between analytical and technological aspects of powerplant design, systems, and effects.
It has a lower energy density than black coal and requires a much larger furnace for equivalent heat output. Raw coal is transported from coal mines to a power station site by trucks , barges , bulk cargo ships , or railway cars. Stack gas path and cleanup[ edit ] See also: Flue-gas emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and Flue-gas desulfurization As the combustion flue gas exits the boiler it is routed through a rotating flat basket of metal mesh which picks up heat and returns it to incoming fresh air as the basket rotates.
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