NAT is Network Address Translation. This is a protocol that provides a way for multiple computers on a common network to share single. Common Interview Questions for Computer. Networking and Information Security Majors. Interviewing with companies for IT positions, whether large or small. Contains Important Computer networks Interview Questions with Answers and Questions based on Computer networks, check your knowledge and test your and Answers PDF | Interview Questions in Computer Networks | Computer.
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Networking Interview Questions and Answers. 1. Define Network What are the key design issues of a computer Network? a. Support for common Services d. Networking Interview Questions updated on Apr At the lowest level, a network can consist of two or more computers directly . Three common redundancy methods are parity check, cyclic redundancy check (CRC), and checksum. Technical Interview Questions On Computer Networks answers and also download computer networks interview questions with answers pdf.
This implies that it can receive input which is processed by the way of the ICC applications and delivered as an output. Finally, Who Is A Hacker? A hacker is a person who breaks into computers usually by gaining access to administrative controls. He uses to access the user id and password without taking the permission. As a result of this article, you will definitely going to show best performance in the interview.
ACID property is the basic property for transaction processing. A - atomicity C - consistency I - isolation D - durability. In the simplet form, a web server returns documents when clients ask for them by name. TP Monitor does mainly two things extremely well.
They are Process management and Transaction management. General middleware, Service-specific middleware. Bluetooth technology allows the creation of Personal Area Networks without cables or wires that are usual in home networks. Bluetooth is a low-cost, short-range RF links between mobile PCs, mobile phones and other portable devices. Bluetooth can transmit through solid, non-metal objects. No, only one hub can be used at a time with a computer.
USB or Serial devices can be added. FCC is Federal Communication Commission, which issues licenses to the stations for specific frequencies. It also decides who is able to use which frequency for what purpose.
Frequency hopping is the technology used in Bluetooth.
Bluetooth uses low-power signals, it plays around in 2. What Is Airport? Airport is a wireless communications system, like Bluetooth. It is based on the IEEE It also uses 2. It is developed by Lucent Technologies. What Is Piconet? A collection of devices connected through Bluetooth technology in an ad hoc fashion. What Is Fec In Bluetooth? Forward Error Correction is a method by which Bluetooth increases its noise immunity. FEC is a method that enables a receiver to not only detect, but also correct errors in a transmission.
Bluetooth picks a random frequency out of 79 and then hops around the range about times per second. What Is A Bluetooth Dongle? A device that hangs outside of a computer, or phone to provide Bluetooth connection. In Version 1. In a piconet, there can be up to three SCO links of 64, bits per second each. The powerful cell phones can transmit a signal of 3 watts.
Why Is Bluetooth 2. The main features of Bluetooth Core Specification Version 2. Name Few Applications Of Bluetooth? Wireless control of and communication between a cell phone and a hands free headset or car kit.
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This is the most popular use. Wireless networking between PCs in a confined space and where little bandwidth is required. Wireless communications with PC input devices such as mouses and keyboards and output devices such as printers.
Transfer of files between devices via OBEX. Transfer of contact details, calendar appointments, and reminders between devices via OBEX. Replacement of traditional wired serial communications in test equipment, GPS receivers and medical equipment. For remote controls where infrared was traditionally used. Sending small advertisements from Bluetooth enabled advertising hoardings to other, discoverable, Bluetooth devices.
A Bluetooth device playing the role of the "master" can communicate with up to 7 devices playing the role of the "slave". A piconet is an ad-hoc computer network of devices using Bluetooth technology protocols to allow one master device to interconnect with up to seven active slave devices because a three-bit MAC address is used.
Up to further slave devices can be inactive, or parked, which the master device can bring into active status at any time. What Is Pairing? Pairs of devices may establish a trusted relationship by learning by user input a shared secret known as a "passkey". A device that wants to communicate only with a trusted device can cryptographically authenticate the identity of the other device. Trusted devices may also encrypt the data that they exchange over the air so that no one can listen in.
Since the Bluetooth address is permanent a pairing will be preserved even if the Bluetooth name is changed. Pairs can be deleted at any time by either device. Devices will generally require pairing or will prompt the owner before it allows a remote device to use any or most of its services.
Some devices such as Sony Ericsson phones will usually accept OBEX business cards and notes without any pairing or prompts. Certain printers and access points will allow any device to use its services by default much like unsecured Wi-Fi networks. The E0 stream cipher is used for encrypting packets. This makes eavesdropping on Bluetooth-enabled devices more difficult.
What Is Bluetooth Sig? It is a specification for a small-form factor, low-cost radio solution providing links between mobile computers, mobile phones, other portable handheld devices and automobiles, as well as connectivity to the Internet. The Bluetooth SIG, comprised of leaders in the telecommunications, computing, automotive and consumer electronics industries, is driving development of the technology and bringing it to market.
Versions 1. Bluetooth is a radio standard and communications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption, with a short range power class dependent: Bluetooth lets these devices communicate with each other when they are in range.
The devices use a radio communications system, so they do not have to be in line of sight of each other, and can even be in other rooms, so long as the received power is high enough.
What Are Bluetooth Profiles? A profile is a description of how to use a specification to implement a particular function. In Bluetooth, there are several profiles available and they are arranged in a hierarchical fashion. For example, in order to use the headset profile, a device must also include the lower level profiles such as the serial port and general access profiles.
Depending on the Bluetooth profiles included on the device, Bluetooth technology has the capability to wirelessly synchronize and transfer data among devices. The Bluetooth audio capabilities can be used for headset and hands free applications. The exact functionality provided by a Bluetooth enabled device depends on the Bluetooth profiles included.
The Bluetooth is not a competitor with While Bluetooth is designed to link devices within a very short range up to 33 feet. Bluetooth is part of the These companies later formed a special interest group known as the Bluetooth SIG.
The Bluetooth 1. Bluetooth wireless technology is a de facto standard, as well as a specification for small-form factor, low-cost, short range radio links between mobile PCs, mobile phones and other portable devices.
The Bluetooth Special Interest Group is an industry group consisting of leaders in the telecommunications, computing, and networking industries that are driving development of the technology and bringing it to market.
Companies likely to adopt this technology include, but are not limited to, software developers, network vendors, silicon vendors, peripheral and camera manufacturers, mobile PC and handheld device manufacturers, consumer electronics manufacturers and more.
These companies are now supported by over 1, other organizations with a wide range of expertise, including Widcomm, Inc. They have to. The Bluetooth Logo Certification Program requires Bluetooth products to interoperate with products manufactured by other vendors; those products that don't interoperate will not be allowed to use the Bluetooth logo.
One concern for mobile computing users is power consumption. Bluetooth radios are very low power, drawing as little as 0. Bluetooth radios alternate among power-saving modes in which device activity is lowered to maximize the mobile power supply. The Bluetooth specification 1. The sum of the width of the LFSRs is , and the spec says "the effective key length is selectable between 8 and bits".
This arrangement allows Bluetooth to be used in countries with regulations limiting encryption strength, and "facilitate a future upgrade path for the security without the need for a costly redesign of the algorithms and encryption hardware" according to the Bluetooth specification. The information available suggests that Bluetooth security will be adequate for most purposes; but users with higher security requirements will need to employ stronger algorithms to ensure the security of their data.
Bluetooth is designed for very low power use, and the transmission range will only be 10m, about 30ft. High-powered Bluetooth devices will enable ranges up to m ft. Considering the design philosophy behind Bluetooth, even the 10m range is adequate for the purposes Bluetooth is intended for. Later versions of the Bluetooth spec may allow longer ranges. Bluetooth transfers data at a rate of Kbps, which is from three to eight times the average speed of parallel and serial ports, respectively.
This bandwidth is capable of transmitting voice, data, video and still images. Since Bluetooth devices use Frequency Hopping and most WLANs use Direct Sequence Spreading techniques they each appear as background noise to the other and should not cause any perceivable performance issues. Bluetooth radios operate on the unlicensed 2. Bluetooth radios switch frequencies at such a rapid pace 1, times per second and the data packets are so small that interference from other RF sources is highly unlikely.
Bluetooth is a robust communication system. What Is Frequency-hopping Spread Spectrum fhss? Frequency-Hopping Spread-Spectrum FHSS is a spread spectrum modulation scheme that uses a narrowband carrier that changes frequency in a pattern known to both transmitter and receiver.
Properly synchronized, they maintain a single logical channel. To an unintended receiver, FHSS appears as short-duration impulse noise. More simply, the data is broken down into packets and transmitted to the receiver of other devices over numerous "hop frequencies" 79 total in a pseudo random pattern. Only transmitters and receivers that are synchronized on the same hop frequency pattern will have access to the transmitted data.
The transmitter switches hop frequencies 1, times per second to assure a high degree of data security. Bluetooth is extremely secure in that it employs several layers of data encryption and user authentication measures. Data encryption i. The transmission scheme FHSS provides another level of security in itself. Instead of transmitting over one frequency within the 2.
At this time, we anticipate the Bluetooth SIG to evolve the Bluetooth technology to provide greater bandwidth and distances, thus increasing the potential platforms and applications used in the emerging personal area networking marketplace. How Is Bluetooth Used? Bluetooth can be used to wirelessly synchronize and transfer data among devices.
Bluetooth can be thought of as a cable replacement technology. Typical uses include automatically synchronizing contact and calendar information among desktop, notebook and palmtop computers without connecting cables.
Bluetooth can also be used to access a network or the Internet with a notebook computer by connecting wirelessly to a cellular phone. OBEX, which provides the same basic functionality as HTTP but in a much lighter fashion, uses a client-server model and is independent of the transport mechanism and transport API, provided it realizes a reliable transport base.
Along with the protocol itself, the "grammar" for OBEX conversations between devices, OBEX also provides a model for representing objects and operations.
In addition, the OBEX protocol defines a folder-listing object, which is used to browse the contents of folders on remote device.
What Is Service Discovery Protocol? Discovery services are crucial part of the Bluetooth framework. These services provide the basis for all the usage models. Using SDP, device information, services and the characteristics of the services can be queried and after that, a connection between two or more Bluetooth devices can be established.
What Is Link Manager Protocol? The link manager protocol is responsible for link set-up between Bluetooth devices. This includes setting up of security functions like authentication and encryption by generating, exchanging and checking of link and encryption keys and the control and negotiation of baseband packet sizes. Furthermore it controls the power modes and duty cycles of the Bluetooth radio device, and the connection states of a Bluetooth unit in a piconet.
Explain Proxy Arp? It is using a router to answer ARP requests. Explain Kerberos? Explain A Multi-homed Host? Explain Nvt network Virtual Terminal? Explain Gateway-to-gateway Protocol? Explain Bgp border Gateway Protocol? Explain Autonomous System? Explain Egp exterior Gateway Protocol? Explain Igp interior Gateway Protocol? Explain Passive Topology? When the computers on the network simply listen and receive the signal, they are referred to as passive because they don't amplify the signal in any way.
Explain Protocol Data Unit? Explain External Data Representation? Explain A Pseudo Tty? Explain A Management Information Base mib? Explain Redirector?
Explain Netbios And Netbeui? Explain Cladding? Explain Attenuation? Explain Mac Address? Explain Bandwidth? It's easy to think of your network as the "inside", and everything else as "outside". However, we've got a third area when it comes to firewalls - the DMZ.
It's common to find the following devices in a DMZ: Name A X. What Is Windowing?
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It can be done by boot system commands and config register. It stands for Service Advertising Protocol and it is used to advertise services. It is used to determine the MAC Address of a workstation. It is used to provide load balancing across multiple links. What Is Magic Number? What Is The Quality Protocol? The router checks the corresponding bit value.
One Access list per port, per protocol is allowed. The cisco routers checks whether the packet is routable or bridgeable. It is used for dial on demand routing. DDR provides routing for low volume and periodic traffic. The network testing is found in IP Options field.
Authentication messages and local router challenges. Socket and ServerSocket. ServerSocket is used for normal two-way socket communication. Socket class allows us to read and write through the sockets. A URL instance represents the location of a resource, and a URLConnection instance represents a link for accessing or communicating with the resource at the location.
What Is A Network Card? A network card is an expansion card installed in a computer that enables the computer to be physically connected to a network. The different types of network card are as follows:.
Ethernet network cards use the RJ connector; whereas, wireless network cards usually have no external connections other than an antenna jack. The RJ connector is generally used to connect standard telephone cord.
It is used to attach short cable patch cable to connect the computer to wall jack. USB is an external hardware interface and communications standard that is utilized for connecting varied peripherals to a computer, such as mouse, external drive, digital cameras, memory sticks, and gaming peripherals.
RJ is used to connect a modem to wall jack.
Normally, USB cables are limited to 5m; however, hubs can be used as an active USB repeater to extend the cable length for up to 5m at a time. The following are the main types of computer cabling:. What Is Twisted Pair? Twisted Pair is made up of insulated copper wire twisted around each other to form wire pairs.
It helps in reducing the noise from external sources and crosstalk on multi-pair cables. Following two classes of Twisted Pair are available: The Category 5 cable contains four Twisted Pairs of copper wire that are capable of transmission of up to Mbps.
In STP cable, the twisted pair is wrapped in foil to decrease external interference and electromagnetic radiations. In coaxial cable, the center cable is insulated by a plastic-foam, a second conductor, a foil wrap, and an external plastic tube.
Following are the commonly used Coaxial cables:. What Is Fiber-optic Cable? Fiber-optic cable is used to transmit light signals over long distances. It has the ability to carry large amount of bandwidth over a greater distance at faster speeds. Fiber- optic cable has the core in the center, which is the glass fiber that carries the light signals. The cladding layer surrounds the core and acts as a mirror allowing the light to reflect off it as the light travels.
Outermost layer of the cable is buffer coating, which protects both fiber and cladding, and prevents signals from leaking out of the cable. It also protects the fiber from damage and moisture.
The fiber-optic cable uses light pulses to carry and transmit data from point to point. Pulses of light are sent from one end of the cable to the other end. The pulses represent data being transmitted that a decoder at the other end of the cable can decode into information. There are two primary types of fiber-optic cables: Single-mode cable has one glass fiber strand; whereas, multi-mode cable has two or more strands along the line. Multi-mode cable fibers are physically larger up to microns in diameter when compared to single-mode fibers, which may be up to 10 microns.
How Long Is 10base5 Ethernet Cable? The approximate maximum length of 10Base5 Ethernet cable is meters. What Is High-definition Multimedia Interface hdmi? It simplifies cabling and provides users with the high-quality home theater experience by delivering crystal-clear all-digital audio and video through a single cable.
HDMI cable can carry a bandwidth of up to five Gigabytes per second. What Is Ethernet Cord Connector? Ethernet cord connector is a device to connect two Ethernet cables.
It is a small box that connects two shorter Ethernet cables. Bus, ring, star, mesh, tree, and cellular topologies are used for LANs; whereas, point-to-point, multipoint, mesh, and cloud topologies are used for WANs. Explain Tree Topology? A tree topology is a LAN architecture that is similar to the bus topology but with multiple nodes.
It can also be defined as a combination of the bus and star topologies. What Is Repeater? A repeater is a device used to interconnect the media segments of an extended network. It enables a series of cable segments to be treated as a single cable. Repeaters receive signals from one network segment and amplify, retime, and retransmit those signals to another network segment to prevent signal deterioration caused by long cable lengths and large numbers of connected devices.
A hub is a device that connects multiple user stations, each through a dedicated cable. Instead of the frame, it transmits a jam signal, and then waits for a random time interval before trying to send the frame again.
What Is Token Passing? A token is a small frame, which is passed from one node to another in a token ring network. If a node has data to send, it must wait until it receives a token.
After the token is received by the node, it seizes the token, marks it as used, and attaches the data. The frame is then addressed to the destination node and the node continues passing the data around the ring until it arrives at the destination node. The destination node copies the data and marks the frame as received. When the sender node receives the frame, it implies that the data is successfully delivered. The sender node then frees the token to be used by another node.
Transmission failure can be caused by the following reasons: Bad cabling.
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Improper termination. Improper cable length. Maximum stations that can be connected to 10Base2 are 30 stations. Maximum stations that can be connected to 10BaseT are stations per network. Maximum stations that can be connected to 10Base5 are nodes per segment and maximum network length of 10Base5 is five segments, that is, approximately m or ft.
The maximum network length of 10Base2 is m for each segment and can be extended up to five segments. The maximum network length of 10Base5 is m for each segment and can be extended up to five segments.
It supports higher transmission speeds across larger distances of around 2 km 1. What Is Network Binding? A network binding binds a protocol to an adapter to carry traffic using that protocol. It provides a good recovery and error protection. And No, it is not routable. It is used in the Netware environment. What Is Netbios? It is an application interface, which operates at the session layer. IP provides connectionless delivery between computer systems.
It does not guarantee the delivery of the packets. TCP provides acknowledged and connection oriented communication. It provides guaranteed delivery with proper sequencing of packets and data integrity checks. UDP is designed for connectionless unacknowledged communications. It adds the information about the source and destination socket identifiers in the datagram's. However, it provides an unreliable service and datagram's may arrive out of order, or appear duplicated.
Physical frames have to be addressed to hardware MAC address of destination network device.
It is an error reporting and diagnostic utility that enables nodes, such as routers, intermediary devices, and hosts, to share error information with other nodes. HTTP is used for transferring web-based information between client and server. It also defines how information is formatted and transmitted over Internet.
The main objective of this protocol is to transfer e-mails reliably and efficiently. DNS is used to resolve logical names into IP addresses. It also stores information, such as the list of mail servers that accept e-mail for a given Internet domain. What Is Telnet Used For? It is primarily used on the Internet or LANs to provide a communication facility, which is bidirectional, interactive, and text-oriented, using a remote terminal connection.
It is often used where very low overhead is required. It is designed to work over serial ports and modem connections. Point-to-Point Protocol is used to transfer network traffic over dialup connection and it supports compression, security, error checking, and flow control. ATP is used for Macintosh computers to provide connectivity to other computers.
Network services enable computers to share data, processing power, and devices. Commonly used network services are file services, print services, and messaging services. File services are used to store and retrieve data files between devices. The different types of application of file services are file access, file synchronization, file backup, and file security.
Print services are used to share output devices such as print and fax servers. The main services provided by an operating system are as follows:. Messaging services are used for the communication among users, their applications, network applications, and individual documents. The user of the messaging services can be a user or application. What Is Electronic Mail? Electronic mail is a set of applications that supports the transfer of information and data between two network users.
DHCP is a configuration protocol that allows a computer to be configured automatically to communicate with other computers on the network and provides a centralized database to keep track of computers that have been connected to the network.
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Repeater is used for network interconnection to receive a network signal from one LAN cable segment and tc regenerate and retransmit the signal in its original strength to another cable segment. In other words, it amplifies the electronic signals from one network cable segment to another.
Repeaters work on the physical layer of the OSI model. Bridges reads the physical address of a device in one network and filters the information before passing the information to another network. Yes, bridges can connect different types of networks, such as Ethernet and token ring. Bridges support the spanning tree algorithm, which helps in communicating with each other and negotiating which bridge will remain in the blocking state; and therefore, prevent the formation of loops in the network.
A router routes the packets between two networks. It reads the information in each packet to determine where it is going. If the packet is destined for an immediate network to which it has access, then it strips the outer packet, readdresses the packet to the proper Ethernet address, and transmits it on that network.
If the packet is destined for another network, then it re-packages the outer packet and sends it to the next router. A router works on the network layer of the OSI model. Static router is configured manually; whereas, dynamic router uses the dynamic routing algorithm to route the packets. Brouters work on both the network layer and the data link layer of the OSI model.
It works on the network layer for routable protocols and on the data link layer for non-routabie protocols. Gateways translate information between different network architectures or network data formats. Define Gateways. Gateways are translators comprised of hardware and software. Often they are dedicated servers with some kind gateway software installed. Router is used to divide a network into logical subnets.
Bridges can be used to filter traffic and reduce communication load. In addition, it provides new packet filtering Application Programming Interfaces APIs and mechanisms for protocol stack offload. When routers become congested, the incoming packets fill the buffer, which in turn begins dropping packets. No, IPv6 cannot be uninstalled in Windows ; however, it can be disabled. Transport Driver Interface makes it possible to use multiple protocols on computer. Unbinding the protocol prevents a network interface adapter from using one of the installed protocol modules on the computer.
Redirector has the knowledge on how to connect to the remote source of data, download the file, and pass it back to Windows, which in turn passes it back to the user or the program. Server Manager helps administrators through the process of installing, configuring, and managing server roles and features that are part of Windows Server R2.
It provides a single location for administrators to change the server's system properties and install or remove roles or features. What Is Windows Powershell? Windows PowerShell is a command-line shell and scripting language to achieve greater productivity and make control system administration easy.
It accelerates automation of system administration tasks and improves organization's ability to address the unique system-management problems in server environment.
Windows Deployment Service helps in setting up new computers by using a network-based installation. Windows Reliability and Performance Monitor is the tool used to monitor and assess system performance and reliability. It provides a graphical interface for customizing performance data collection and Event Trace sessions. IRQs are hardware lines over which hardware devices send the interrupt signals to the microprocessor. What Is Direct Memory Access dma?
When a Plug and Play device is connected to the computer, a new hardware is detected by the computer and it searches for the driver, which is then installed, and configures the hardware to use the system resources. What Is Device Driver? Device driver is a software component that provides an interface between the hardware of a computer and its operating system.
Hardware, such as keyboards, controllers, and graphics cards, requires device drivers so that the operating system can detect the devices and handle them effectively and efficiently. Client and server are two different machines physical or virtual connected in such a manner that whenever a client posts some request to a server, the server provides an appropriate response to the client.
Following are the new networking features in Windows R DirectAccess enables users to access an enterprise network without the extra step of initiating a Virtual Private Network VPN connection. VPN Reconnect automatically re-establishes a VPN connection as soon as Internet connectivity is restored, saving users from re-entering their credentials and recreating the VPN connection.
BranchCache enables updated content from file and Web servers on a Wide Area Network WAN to be cached on computers at a local branch office, improving application response time and reducing WAN traffic. Mobile broadband device support provides a driver-based model for devices that are used to access a mobile broadband network. Multiple active firewall profiles enable the firewall rules most appropriate for each network adapter based on the network to which it is connected. Netsh is a command-line scripting utility that is used to display or modify the network configuration of a computer that is currently running.
Both remote computers and local computers can be configured by using the netsh command. Netsh also provides a scripting feature that allows you to run a group of commands in batch mode against a specified computer. Live migration enables customers to move virtual machines from one host to another with no perceivable downtime. It facilitates hardware maintenance, and upgrades manual failover and the consolidation of workloads on fewer servers.
It also enables migration across a broader range of server host hardware. What Is File Classification Infrastructure fci? FCI provides a built-in solution to classify and manage files to users and help them to save time and money. Administrators can automatically classify files based on content and location, generate reports, and schedule file management tasks to manage data.
The Windows Server CAL grants the right to a device or user to access the server software; whereas, the Windows Server R2 license gives the license holder the right to create, copy, store, and run the server software. What Is Volume Licensing? When you acquire licenses from Microsoft and its partners in certain quantities or volumes, they offer discounts from their retail product prices. Volume Licensing programs offer companies of all sizes an economical way to download and manage multiple software licenses for as few as five desktops.
What Is Software Assurance sa? Software Assurance SA is a way for Volume Licensing customers to keep up to date with the latest and most innovative Microsoft products.
Customers acquire the right to install any new release of a product covered in the agreement during the term of the coverage. Primary partition is an active partition where the hardware looks for boot files to start the operating system.
Extended partition is created from whatever free space remains on the disk after creating the primary partition. What Is Internet Scsi iscsi? It provides the possibility of delivering both messaging traffic and block-based storage over existing IP networks, without installing a separate and expensive Fibre Channel network. SCSI pronounced as scuzzy is a set of standards for physically connecting and transferring data between peripheral devices and computers. DFS Namespaces enable grouping of shared folders located on different servers into one or more logically structured namespaces.
DFS Replication keeps the folders synchronized between servers across network connections. Shadow Copies for Shared Folders are point-in-time copies of files that are located on shared resources, such as a file server. Users can view shared files and folders as they existed at points of time in the past by using Shadow Copies for Shared Folders. File Server Resource Manager is a suite of tools for Windows Server that allows administrators to control, manage, and understand the quantity and type of data stored on their server.
Share and Storage Management provides a centralized location to manage the following server resources:. LUN is a logical reference to a portion of a storage subsystem. It consists of a disk, a section of a disk, a whole disk array, or a section of a disk array in the subsystem. What Is Disk Management? Disk Management is a utility for managing hard disks and the volumes or partitions. Following five types of dynamic volumes are available:. What Are Spanned Disk Volumes?
Spanned disk volumes combine areas of unallocated space from multiple disks into one logical volume. They require minimum of two disks; however, you can use up to 32 disks. What Is Striped Disk Volume? Striped disk volumes are made up of stripes of data of equal size written across each disk in the volume.
They are created from equally sized, unallocated areas on two or more disks. If one of the disks containing a striped volume fails, the entire volume fails, and all data on the striped volume becomes inaccessible.
What Is Mirrored Volume? A mirrored volume provides a copy of a volume on another disk. This is a fault-tolerant volume, which provides data redundancy by duplicating the information contained on the volume. The two disks that make up a mirrored volume are known as mirrors. What Is Raid-5 Volume? It stripes data and parity across three or more disks.
Parity is a calculated value used to reconstruct data if one disk fails. When a disk fails, Windows Server continues to operate by recreating the data that was on the failed disk from the remaining data and parity,. Three file systems for an installation partition are as follows:. The following are the benefits of using NTFS:. The standard NTFS folder permissions are as follows:. The standard NTFS file permissions are as follows:.
What Is Access Control List acl? ACL is a list of all the user accounts and groups that have been granted or denied access to a file or a folder. When a user attempts to gain access to a resource, the ACL must contain an access control entry for the user account or a group to which the user belongs. Effective permissions for a resource are the sum of the NTFS permissions that you assign to the individual user account and groups to which the user belongs. You need to know the full path of the file to access it when you do not have a folder level permission.
Yes, the Deny permission overrides all the other permissions. Explain Ntfs Permissions Inheritance? NTFS permissions inheritance implies that the permissions assigned to a parent folder are inherited and propagated to the subfolders and files contained in the parent folder. You can prevent permission inheritance by setting an option of preventing inheritance at parent folder level.
You should perform the following steps for this:. If you do not have permission to access a folder, then the Traverse Folder permission enables you to browse through the folder. A user can connect to a shared folder by using the following tools:. The Administrator group shares the folder residing on any computer in the domain. The Server Operator group shares the folder on domain controllers. The Power Users group shares the folder on the computer where the group is located.
Perform the following steps to share the host drive with virtual machines:. Access-based Enumeration permits the users to view only those files and folders on a file server to which they have permission to access.
What Is A Print Server? Print server is a computer on which the printers associated with local and network print devices resides. You must be a member of the Print Operators, Server Operators, or Local Administrators group on the remote print server to be able to manage remote print server. What Is Location-aware Printing? Location-Aware Printing allows you to select different default printers for various networks.
Therefore, you can use the same laptop in multiple locations; for example, at work and at home. The laptop can automatically select the correct default printer, depending on the location of the user. Print and Document Services in Windows R2 enables you to centralize the print server and network printer management tasks. It also enables you to receive scanned documents from network scanners, and route the documents to shared network resource, Windows SharePoint Services site, or e-mail addresses.
The new features of Performance and Reliability Monitor are as follows:. Reliability Monitor collects data about the system and calculates a System Stability Index, which is a report that lists the issues that have made the system less reliable over a period of time. The report also contains steps that can be taken to troubleshoot the root cause of the issue.
Reliability Monitor provides a graphical interface for customizing performance data collection and Event Trace Sessions. What Is Unified Property Configuration? Unified property configuration is an interface with the ability to create and manage objects from a single location to significantly reduce the time it takes to set up the monitoring that the users require.
The Performance and Reliability Monitor tool helps you to monitor, troubleshoot, and diagnose issues that are occurring or might occur, from a single location. With the use of Resource View in the Performance and Reliability Monitor tool, you can find out what a specific process is doing or stop a process, which is using numerous resources. Wizards and templates for creating logs add counters to log files and gives the ability to set the start, stop, and duration of those counters.
What Is Authorization Manager? Authorization Manager is a role-based security architecture for Windows and used in applications that needs role-based authorization, including ASP. NET remoting. What Is Role-based Management Model? Role-based management model enables you to assign users to roles and gives a central place to record permissions assigned to each role.
This model is often called role-based access control. What Are User Authorization Roles? Roles based on a user's job function are called user authorization roles. These roles are used to authorize access, delegate administrative privileges, or manage interaction with computer-based resources. For example, you might define a Treasurer role that includes the right to authorize expenditures and audit account transactions. What Are Computer Configuration Roles? Roles based on a computer's function are called computer configuration roles.
These roles are used to select features that you want to install, to enable services, and to select options.
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Windows BitLocker is a security feature in the Windows Vista and Windows Server operating systems that provides protection for the operating system on the computer and to the data stored on the operating system volume, In Windows Server , BitLocker protection can also be applied to volumes used for data storage. What Is Encrypting File System efs? EFS is a tool used for encrypting files and folders on client computers and remote file servers.
It helps users to protect their data from unauthorized access by other users or external attackers. The Robocopy utility, added as a new feature in Windows Server , is used to copy EFS-encrypted files without needing the decryption key. The new functionality of EFS is the ability to store encryption certificates on smart cards, per-user encryption of files in the client-side cache, additional Group Policy options, and a new rekeying wizard.
Smart card SSO is triggered whenever a user logs on with a smart card in one of the following conditions: The user does not have a valid EFS encryption key on the computer, and smart cards are required for EFS by policy settings.
The user has a valid EFS encryption key that resides on the smart card, which is used for logon. Yes, if the smart card used for the logon is removed from the smart card reader before any encryption operations are performed, then SSO gets disabled and the user will be prompted for a smart card and PIN at the first EFS operation. AppLocker defines the rules based on file attributes derived from the digital signature.
These rules specify which files are allowed to run. Files that are not included in rules are not allowed to run. UAC helps protect the network by preventing users from running malicious software. What Is Active Directory? Active Directory is a hierarchical structure that stores information about objects on the network. It is a centralized system that automates network management of data, security, and distributed resources.
It also allows interoperation with other directories. Active Directory Domain Services defines the data structure and those services that provide organization, management, and security of accounts and resources in a Microsoft network. What Is Forest? Forest contains all the domains, sites, and trusts that are part of Active Directory Domain Services.
It also contains a single domain by default, which is called the forest root domain. What Is Domain Controller? Domain controllers are servers that run on a version of the Windows Server operating system and hosts Active Directory Domain Services. LDAP is a protocol that directory clients use to gain access to data, which is held by directory servers. It supports bind, unbind, read, and modify operations. It is also responsible for packaging and interpreting LDAP packets over the network. What Is Active Directory Schema?
Active Directory schema is the set of attributes and classes that defines the types of objects and information about the objects stored in Active Directory Domain Services. Windows Time service automatically synchronizes the local computer's time with other computers on the network. What Is Security Accounts Manager sam? SAM is a database that has information about user accounts and security descriptors for users on the local computer.
What Is Account Management? Account Management includes creating, modifying, and deleting user accounts and detection of duplicate accounts and Security Identifiers SIDs. RID manager is responsible for providing numbers that are used to create unique SIDs for each account in a domain.
Local Security Authority LSA policy is used to manage trust relationship between domains and forests. It manages replication of the user account database to back up domain controllers running Windows NT 4. What Is Global Catalog Server?
Global catalog is a distributed data repository to facilitate searches and logons in an Active Directory forest. The global catalog data is automatically built by the Active Directory replication system.
The domain controllers that host the global catalog are called global catalog servers. The services that are hosted on domain controllers are as follows:. Administrative templates. ADMX files are registry-based policy settings that are listed under the Administrative Templates node of both the Computer and User Configuration nodes. The logical elements that can be combined to define an Active Directory topology are as follows:. In the local user account, users log on to the computer where the account is located and gain access to resources on that computer.
In the domain user account, users log on to the domain and gain access to resources anywhere on the network. What Is Built-in User Account? Windows XP automatically creates built-in accounts, which are of the following two types:. The tcpip. What Is Teredo? The structure of Teredo IPv6 addressing is as follows:. What Is Ipv6 Address? IPv6 address is assigned to a network interface of a computer participating in a network using the IP suite.
It is bits long hexadecimal number. The loopback address for IPv4 Is The IPv6 loopback address is often expressed as:: IPv6 uses subnets, but the subnet Identifier ID is built into the address. First 48 characters of the address are the network prefix, next 16 characters which are often all zeros are the subnet ID, and the last 64 characters are the interface identifier.
There are four sequential sections separated by zeros in IPv6. Instead of suppressing the leading zeros, you can represent all the sequential zeros and replace them with two colons. The two colons inform the operating system that everything in between them is a zero.
The ip6. Transition technologies use tunneling to facilitate cross network compatibility. The tunnel endpoints are required on both ends to encapsulate and extract the IPv6 packets. Microsoft has established a special domain for IPv6 address translation. You can include an IPv6 address within a Universal Naming Convention by replacing the colons with dashes and appending. The ipconfig command is used to check the IPv6 address.
You can also use the netsh interface ipv6 show address command to view the IPv6 addresses. Windows support the following three elements of a DHCP infrastructure:. What Is Dhcp For Ipv6? Session Layer b. Presentation Layer and c. Application Layer What does the Data Link Layer do?
It takes care of: a. Node to node delivery. Framing c. Physical Addressing d. Flow Control e. Error Control f. Access Control What is NIC? What are the responsibilities of Network Layer? Logical Addressing b. Routing Name the various error detection methods. The various error detection methods are: a.
Checksum What is Bit Stuffing? How does dynamic host configuration protocol aid in network administration? These can be then dynamically assigned to the systems. Brute forcing is a mechanism which is used by an attacker to break the encryption of data by applying a set of various key RSA is a public key encryption algorithm.
The RSA algorithms are Read Answ er Can you differentiate among encoding, encryption and hashing? Encoding: Basically encoding is used to protect the integrity of data as it crosses through communication network to keep its original message Read Answ er If you have to generate a hash function then what characteristics are needed in a secure hash function?
A secure hash function should have the following characteristics Read Answ er What is digital signature? Differentiate between Physical and Digital Signature A digital signature is an electronic analogue of a written signature; the digital signature can be used to provide assurance How does it protect internet users from various threats?
How does it differ from a firewall? Read Answ er What are Malware?Karthik Raja. Commit the work and Return a fixed set of results.
Its main task is to automatically assign an IP address to devices across the network. These devices in networking or even called as nodes. Following are the commonly used Coaxial cables:. Another open loop method to help manage congestion is forcing the packet to be transmitted at a more predictable rate. The IPv6 loopback address is often expressed as:: Presentation Layer Transform data into application layer format. Server-based networks provide centralized control of network resources and rely on server computers to provide security and network administration.
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